Function
 Check diagonal tensile stresses in PSC beam elements in contours. Diagonal tensile stresses are displayed for only those elements, which are defined with Steel Bar for Web in Reinforcement of PSC Section. Diagonal tensile stresses are not calculated for tapered sections
Call
From the main menu, select [Results] tab > [Type : Analysis results] > [Result Display] group > [Stresses] > [Beam Stresses(PSC)]
Input
Beam Stresses (PSC) dialog box
Load Cases/Combinations
Select a desired load case, load combination or envelope case.
Click to the right to enter new or modify existing load combinations. (Refer to "Load Cases / Combinations")
Step
Specify the step for which the analysis results are to be produced. The Step is defined in geometric nonlinear analysis as Load Step, and additional steps are defined in the construction stages of bridges.
The Construction Stage applicable for the output of the construction stage analysis is defined in Select Construction Stage for Display or Stage Toolbar.
Section Position
Select a desired location for diagonal tensile stress result output among the locations shown in the section diagram.
Position 1~16 : Stress output locations.
1~4 : 4 locations at the corners.
7, 8 : The locations on the neutral axis of the section considering reinforcements and tendons.
5, 6, 9, 10 : Z1 and Z3 locations which are defined using Model > Properties > Section.
11~16 : The locations for the critical normal stresses or shear stresses due to warping
In case when tendons and reinforcement are entered for a PSC Section, they can be considered in stress calculations. In addition, the user can specify whether to consider the tendons and reinforcement in stress calculations. The centroid used for both construction stage and final stage for stress calculations is identical. The option for considering tendons for stress calculation can be specified in Analysis>Construction Stage Analysis Control. The option for considering reinforcement for stress calculation can be specified in Analysis > Main Control Data.
In both construction and completion stages, stress results are outputted based on the same neutral axis.
Max : Maximum stress value among the 16 locations
Min : Minimum stress value among the 16 locations
Max/Min : Displays both maximum and minimum values of PSC stresses, to enable the user to identify the maximum and minimum stresses at a glance.
Abs Max : Maximum stress in absolute value among the 16 locations
Components
Select the desired stress component among the following :
Sigxx (Axial) : Total axial stress in the element's local xdirection
Sigxx (Momenty) : Stress in the xdirection of the element coordinate system due to the moment about the yaxis.
Sigxx (Momentz) : Stress in the xdirection of the element coordinate system due to the moment about the zaxis.
Sigxx (Bar) : Stress in the xdirection due to shear forces in the bar.
Sigxx (Summation) : Summation of stresses in the xdirection (Axial, Momenty, Momentz, Bar).
Sigzz : Stress in the zdirection of the element coordinate system.
Sigxz(shear) : Summation of shear stresses due to shear forces and shear bars.
Sigxz(torsion) : Shear stress due to torsion.
Sigxz(bar) : Shear stress due to shear bars.
1. For shear stress calculations, shear thickness at the corresponding checking location of the PSC section is used. If no value is entered, the thickness will be automatically calculated.
2. During the construction stage loading, shear stress due to shear bars is calculated in CS:Tendon Primary and CS:Summation. However, in models where no tendon is input, it is only considered in CS:Summation.
SigPs1 : Maximum Principal Stress
SigPs2 : Minimum Principal Stress
SigIs(shear) : Diagonal Tensile Stress excluding torsional shear stress
SigIs(shear+torsion) : Diagonal Tensile Stress considering shear stresses due to shear force and torsion
The stress components due to response spectrum loading are calculated by selecting the combination method (SRSS, CQC, ABS) based on the results obtained for each mode.
7th DOF
: Sax(Warping) : Warping Normal Stress
: Ssy(Mt) : Shear Stress due to Twisting Moment or St. Venant torsion (τxy)
: Ssy(Mw) : Shear Stress due to Warping Moment (τxy)
: Ssz(Mt) : Shear Stress due to Twisting Moment or St. Venant torsion (τxz)
: Ssz(Mw) : Shear Stress due to Warping Moment (τxz)
: Combined(Ssy) : Shear Stress due to “Transverse + Twisting Moment + Warping Moment”(τxy)
: Combined(Ssz) : Shear Stress due to “Transverse + Twisting Moment + Warping Moment” (τxz)
Combined stress is calculated as (Sax ± Sby ± Sbz), and if the section configuration is chosen to consider 7 degrees of freedom, the combined stress is calculated as the maximum/minimum value of (Sax ± Sby ± Sbz ± Sax (Warping)).
Calculations for each stress component are shown below.
Sigxx(Summation) 
Total stress in the element's local xdirection . Stress in the element's local xdirection at the stress checking point . Stress in the element's local xdirection due to prestressing shear bars 

Sig_zz 
Total stress in the element's local zdirection 

Sigxz(Shear) 
Total shear stress due to shear force and prestressing shear bars (at 1, 4, 5, 7, 9 points) (at 2, 3, 6, 8, 10 points) . Shear stress due to shear force . Shear stress due to prestressing shear bars 

Sigxz(torsion) 
Shear stress due to torsion 

Sigxz(bar) 
Shear stress due to prestressing shear bars 

SigIs(Shear) 
Diagonal tensile stress due to shear stress 

SigIs(Shear+torsion) 
Diagonal tensile stress resulting from both shear force and torsion 

SigPs1 
Maximum principal stress 

SigPs2 
Minimum principal stress 
where,
T = Pe of prestressing shear bars
b = Thickness for shear check at the corresponding location
a = Spacing of prestressing shear bars
= Slope of prestressing shear bars
= Coefficient required for calculating shear stress due to torsion
: Cross sectional area of a closed area within a PSC Section
: Minimum web thickness of PSC Section
Area is taken as the transformed area, which includes reinforcement and tendons.
1. In the case where the loading location is not fixed, such as Settlement Load Group or Moving Load Analysis Control, the maximum/minimum principal stresses are calculated based on the simultaneous occurrence of maximum/minimum member forces (Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My, Mz) in each member. Among the resulting 12 sets of maximum/minimum principal stresses, the maximum/minimum values are output as Max/Min stresses. While Beam Stresses (PSC) calculates stresses based on the simultaneous occurrence of member forces, Beam Stresses considers the influence analysis of each stress component separately, so the stress results may differ.
2. For PSC Stress due to moving loads, it is only output when the 'Normal + Concurrent Force' option under Analysis > Moving Load Analysis Control for the frame is checked.
3. When the user does not apply Tendon Prestress Loads after entering tendon data or does not consider tendons during the construction stage, the stress analysis is performed without considering the tendon, unlike in PSC design where tendons are taken into account.
4. Stress results during the construction stage are calculated using the crosssectional properties specific to that stage, and the crosssectional properties used in each stage are output in table format under Element Properties at Each Stage.
The stress output location (position 1~10) is defined at the time of entering PSC Section input data. If the shear check location is not specified separately, it is automatically calculated within the program. The shear check locations for each crosssectional shape are determined based on the PSC Section.
Type of Display
Define the type of display as follows:
Contour
Display the displacement of the model in contour.
Ranges : Define the contour ranges.
Customize Range : Assign the color distribution range of contour. Using the function, specific colors for specific ranges can be assigned.
Number of Colors : Assign the number of colors to be included in the contour (select among 6, 12, 18, 24 colors)
Colors : Assign or control the colors of the displacement contour.
Color Table : Assign the type of Colors.
Customize Color Table : Control the colors by zones in the contour.
Reverse Contour : Check on to reverse the sequence of color variation in the contour.
Contour Line : Assign the boundary line color of the contour
Element Edge : Assign the color of element edges while displaying the contour
Contour Options : Specify options for contour representation
Contour Fill
Gradient Fill : Display color gradient (shading) in the contour.
Draw Contour Lines : Display color boundaries in the contour.
Draw Contour Line Only
Display only the colored boundaries of the contour.
Mono line : Display the boundaries of the contour in a mono color.
Contour Annotation
Legend or annotation signifying the ranges of the contour is displayed.
Spacing : Display the spacing for the legnd or annotation.
Coarse Contour (faster) (for large plate or solid model)
Represent a simplified contour for a large model using plate or solid elements in order to reduce the time required to represent a complete contour.
Extrude
Where plate elements or solid elements along a cutting plane are represented in contour, a three dimensional contour is created. The positive direction of the analysis results is oriented in the zaxis direction of the local element coordinate system.
The option is not concurrently applicable with the Deformed Shape option. Similarly, the option cannot be concurrently applied to the cases where the Hidden option is used to display plate element thicknesses or the Both option is used to represent Top & Bottom member forces (stresses).
Deform
Display the deformed shape of the model.
Deformation Scale Factor
Magnify or reduce the size of the displacement graphically displayed in the model window.
Deformation Type
Select the type of display for displacement
Nodal Deform : Display the deformed shape only with nodal displacements.
Real Displacement (AutoScale off) : The true deformation of the structure is graphically represented without magnifying or reducing it. This option is typically used for geometric nonlinear analysis reflecting large displacement.
Relative Displacement : The deformation of the structure is graphically represented relative to the minimum nodal displacement, which is set to "0"
Values
Display the forces/moments of plate elements in numerical values.
The font and color of the numbers can be controlled in Display Option.
Decimal Points : Assign decimal points for the displayed numbers
Exp. : Express as exponentials
Min & Max : Display the maximum and minimum values
Abs Max : Display the absolute maximum value
Max : Display only the maximum value
Min : Display only the minimum value
Limit Scale(%) : Set the screen display limit for internal forces relative to the selected maximum or minimum value
Set Orientation : Display orientation of numerical values
The default Decimal Points can be controlled in "Preferences".
Set Orientation = 0 horizontally displays the numerical values to the right of nodes or elements.
The orientation angle represents the counterclockwise direction, which may be used to enhance the readability of the numbers.
Legend
Display various references related to analysis results to the right or left of the working window.
Element numbers pertaining to the maximum and minimum forces are displayed.
Legend Position : Position of the legend in the display window
Rank Value Type : Specify a type of values in the Legend and the number of decimal points
Animate
Dynamically simulate the forces/moments of plate elements.
Click the Apply button then click the Record button to the right of the Animation control board at the bottom of the working window.
Animation Mode : Determine the type of animation for analysis results.
Animate Contour : Option to change the color of the contour representing the transition according to the magnitudes of variation
Repeat Half/Full Cycle : Select the repetition cycle for the dynamic representation of the transition
Select 'Half Cycle' for the transient shapes of a structure and 'Full Cycle' for dynamically simulating vibration modes or buckling modes.
AVI Options : Enter the options required to produce animation window.
Bits per Pixel: Number of bits per pixel to create the default window for animation
Compressor: Assign the method of compressing image data
Frames per Half Cycle (3~300) : Number of frames to simulate a 'Half Cycle'
Frames per Second (5~60) : Number of frames per second to present dynamic simulation
Construction Stage Option : Select the animation options when the construction stage analysis is performed.
Stage Animation : Animations by construction stages
Current StageStep : Animations by Steps in the current construction stage
From ~ To : Starting and ending construction stages or steps for animations
Undeformed : Overlap the undeformed and deformed shapes of the model.
Mirrored
"Mirrored" allows the user to expand the analysis results obtained from a half or quarter model into the results for the full model by reflecting planes.
Half Model Mirroring
Quarter Model Mirroring
Mirror by : Specify the mirror plane (s) by designating a plane and a coordinate in the direction perpendicular to the plane in GCS.
Value Output Location
Assign the section location at which internal stresses of the beam elements are produced in numerical values.
I : Display the stress at the start node (N1) of a beam element.
Center : Display the stress at the center of a beam element.
J : Display the stress at the end node (N2) of a beam element.
Max : Display the maximum stress among the stresses at the quarter points of each beam element, at the center of each element.
All : The stresses occurring at the start and end points of the member are displayed simultaneously as numerical values, along with the maximum stress mentioned above.