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# [Civil] How are the results of a plate output?

## Question

How are the results of a plate output?

## Answer

The analysis results for quadrilateral plate elements are displayed at a total of 5 locations as shown in the image.

When you select an element in [Results] tab > [Plate Forces/Moments] > Plate Force Option (or Stresses Option), the results are displayed within a single element. If you select Avg. Nodal, it displays the averaged values taking into account neighboring elements.

Since there are 5 results for each element, there are 4 values for a single node when viewed from a reference node. The average of these 4 values is shown as Avg. Nodal.

For example, if you select an element, the results for node 4 of Element 1 are shown as the values marked with a red dot at node 4. If you choose Avg. Nodal, it will display the average values for the four nodes marked with circles.

When you choose Avg. Nodal, you can also select the Avg. Nodal Active Only option. This option calculates the average of results only for active elements, ensuring meaningful result output. For instance, if you have dummy elements in your model that do not represent structural members but are included for load application or other purposes, you can make them inactive to exclude them from influencing the analysis results.

Interpreting analysis results and combining them effectively is essential for structural design. It can vary depending on the type of structure, modeling approach, and the designer's judgment. midas Civil provides various methods for combining and interpreting results to cater to different user intentions.

In general, the results of Avg. Nodal, which considers the relationship with neighboring elements, are mainly checked, and in sections with large stress changes, the results of Element and Avg. Nodal may differ significantly.

[Results] tab > [Plate Forces/Moments] > Type of Display, you can select Number Options to be displayed in the results.

When Element Center is selected, the value of the element center is displayed regardless of Element/Avg. Nodal, and when Max is selected, the maximum value of the values at the four vertices that define the Plate element is displayed. At this time, the Max value varies depending on which option Element or Avg. Nodal is selected.

If Min Max Only is checked, the following items are enabled. Min & Max to display the maximum and minimum values, Abs Max to display the number with the maximum absolute value, Max to display the maximum value, and Min to display the minimum value. At this time, the values may vary depending on which option of Element / Avg. Nodal is selected above.

The image below shows the bending moments for a slab structure due to self-weight. On the left, the magnitude of the internal forces is represented by color, and on the right, these values are displayed in diagram form. The right-side diagram provides a more intuitive way to understand the results.

To display results for plate elements with their magnitudes, you should use a 3D diagram. However, midas Civil does not provide this specific functionality. Instead, you can define a cutting plane to generate 2D diagrams for that plane. This feature is called the Cutting Diagram.

The [Structure] tab > [UCS/ Plan ] group > Named Plane function allows you to define a cutting plane and output a cutting diagram based on that plane.

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